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Uncle_Tobies_Shopalite There are as many theories on this topic as there are writers. However, based on consumer behavioural studies, most respected scholars make some fundamental conclusions on how marcomms work.

It is important to be clear that there are 3 levels of effects (processing phases) going on in the customer’s mind simultaneously during the marketing communication process1.

  1. Customer decision stages (Not in the market, Need arousal, Search and evaluation, Purchase, Usage)
  2. Brand communications effects. (Category Need, Brand Awareness, Brand Preference, Brand Action intention, Purchase)
  3. Advertising or promotion process (attention, learning, emotions, acceptance)

The 3 stages are interlaced, and therefore marketers should pay attention to the fact that, the campaign communication process should be looked at in a holistic manner.

For further analysis I’d like to focus on the Brand communication effects phase. Kotler and Keller refers to the Brand communication effects stage as the consumer decision-making process which covers Total set, Awareness set, Consideration set, choice set, and Decision. The Engel, Kollat and Blackwell model is another ground breaking finding on this topic.

The category need (consumer need) can arise through a natural circumstance (e.g. no milk in the refrigerator) or as a result of a marketing stimuli (advert for half price cereal promotion).

Marketing communication campaigns could have specific and/or several campaign objectives. However, the 2 most universal communication objectives are – building Brand Awareness and Brand Preference.

Brand Awareness is boosted by Brand Recognition (at the point of purchase) and Brand Recall (prior to purchase). Brand Recall is an important indicator in measuring Brand Awareness.

Brand Preference (AKA Brand Attitude) is the customers attitude towards the brand and can be measured at pre-campaign and post campaign state. Brand Preference tactics are developed on a formula of A0=B1+E1 where A is brand attributes, B is belief, and E is evaluation.

I will share in a future blog tactics associated with building Brand Awareness and Brand Preference.

To conclude (albeit simply), a positive brand attitude will result in a favourable purchase intention.


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